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You are here: BUSINESS-AREA - Glossar

The great Computerlexikon !

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 
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Address

In order to be able to address data, instructions or hardware, certain addresses are assigned to them. Also in the InterNet it gives to be called clear addresses, thereby certain sides can. Addressing is called the procedure, with which certain computer components are addressed.

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AGP

Abbreviation for Advanced Graphics haven. A newly developed diagram bus, which accelerates communication between processor and diagram map. Beyond that the diagram map controls further functions e.g. the deposit of textures in the system memory.

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API

Abbreviation for Application Programmers interface. Defines the interface between programs and the operating system. This interface makes program routines available, with which other programs can access hardware routines.

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ASCII

The American standard code for information inter-CHANGE (= standard format for data exchange) describes an international 7-bit code, with which an indication is coded in each case. The respected place serves for the examination. With these seven bits 128 indications can be represented. Extended values from 128 to 255 are country-specific and represent indications of other languages and graphics characters.

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AUTOEXEC.BAT

A batch file from DOS times, which is processed after the start. It contains data concerning the path of the operating system, environment variable and driver.

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BIOS

Abbreviation for basic input output system. It is a program collection, which contains basis routines for the hardware access. When switching on of the PC on with the help of the BIOS a self check is accomplished. Since the operating system does not know each computer configuration, the BIOS offers standard routines, over which the operating system can access certain component.

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Batch file

A such file consists of several instructions, which are successively processed. These files are usually operating system commands with some extensions.

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Benchmark

This is a test for the leistungsbestimmung of a computer, whereby interaction is measured by hard and software. In addition several programs with different tasks are implemented. Certain values are measured and compared when desired with the values of other systems.

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bidirectional

Bi-directional it means that a process runs off in two directions. There is also bi-directional penalty, with which the information about the same bus will receive sent and.

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Boot range

It will also boat sector called and covers the first sectors of a non removable disk with their assistance the PC to be gebootet can. Here information about the data medium is stored.

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booting

It is the starting procedure, with which the computer goes through several phases. First a hardware check comes, to it examined, whether operating system can be loaded, the operating system is loaded and the temporary work areas for the operating system furnished.

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- C -
Client

An independent computer in a network, which can access data and programs of the server responsible for it.

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Character fonts (= Fonts) determine the appearance of documents. There are e.g. proportionally spaced printings, which use different widths for different indications. Furthermore certain font families exist, whereby these writings differ only in size and execution.

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Crash

If a PC accepts no inputs and any longer does not continue working, then it is "abgestuerzt". This condition can be released due to errors in the hard or software.

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Cluster

In file systems with non removable disks several sectors are combined into a cluster and regarded as a unit. Cluster 1 KB to 64 KB can be large, which varies depending upon the partition size. If in a cluster a very small file is stored, which is large only several bytes, then the remainder is considered as occupied. Modern operating systems use as small a cluster sizes as possible, so that too much storage location is not wasted.

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Copy protection

In order to protect programs or files against unauthorized copying, there are different methods. Programs e.g. can be provided with a password, which is asked with the each start. Software on CDs will mostly provide the original CD with a copy protection such as SafeDisk, which permits a copying, when starting of the program however requires. These measures spurred Tueftler to find ways how one can go around the copy protection.

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CONFIG.SYS

A ASCII file, which contains instructions to hardware and operating system attitudes of the PC. In this file driver for the attached hardware can register itself, so that they are loaded with each system start.

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Cracker

Cracker try to penetrate exactly the same as hackers into secured systems without permission. Contrary to hackers their motives are rather in the destruction and fame under colleagues.

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Data base

Designates a system for the storage of often large data sets in a file. The data are arranged according to certain definitions, in order to be accessible a circle of users.

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Data compression

Marks a procedure, data through codes to compress. Normal texts or pictures can be compressed around the factor two to five. Acquaintance procedure for the compression of pictures are JPEG and MPEG, however these are compressed with certain quality losses. GIF files however can be compressed without, in addition, with quality losses.

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Dissolution

The dissolution of monitor describes the extent at graphic information, which can be represented on a monitor. It is indicated for it in number of points in vertical and horizontal direction, e.g. 1024x768.

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Decoder

English for Datenentschluesseler in a computer. Over programs data are decoded. So e.g. important data can be sent over data networks and be interpreted correct only by the receiver, because only this has the necessary decoding key.

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DLL

Abbreviation for dynamic left LIBRARY. A characteristic of Windows and OS/2 for a library module, which is loaded if necessary into the main memory and all programs at the same time is available.

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Driver

The drivers contain routines, with which an operating system hardware can steer.

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DRIVER.SYS

A file, which contains device drivers for external devices.

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Emulator

A program is to run on a computer system, for which it (e.g. a DOS program on a UNIX system) is not written. Then one must describe the program or a special program, an emulator, adapts it. An environment is put by the emulator to the program at the disposal, which behaves like the appropriate computer system. Thus the programs run however more slowly than on the genuine system.

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- F -
FAT 16

Abbreviation for file Allocation Table (= file allocation table). 1977 for the operating system DOS develop. Here information about the allocation and the condition is the cluster (defective or OK ONE) on the non removable disk or disk, as well as the stored files (free or occupied) contain. The FAT lies adjacent on the boat sector. If it should be defective, a copy for the operating system is present. FAT 16 partitions can be large at the most 4 GB.

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FAT 32

FAT 32 is the advancement of FAT 16, which 1996 for the first time for Windows 95b for the order. Since this file system with 32 bits works, the maximum partition size amounts to 2 Terabyte (2048 gigabyte). In addition more economically with the disk capacity one goes around, since smaller cluster are used.

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- G -
GDI

Abbreviation for Graphics DEVICES interface or an interface for diagramable peripheral devices. Under Windows contain a library routines, which the connection to attached devices manufactures.

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Graphic surface

A graphic screen representation, usually in fenstertechnik for the use of a PC by clicking symbols with the mouse programs can be started. The command input as with DOS is void, is however still present.

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- H -
Hacker

Persons, who try to penetrate into other computer systems over data lines without permission. They try to break through the security by finding the password out. The objectives can be criminal kind, in addition, the personal play-rubbed causes hackers to these acts. That at least is the everyday definition. "richtigen" Hackers see themselves however differently. For them hackers are persons, who can to accept and for this reason into the systems penetrate e.g. no weak points in operating systems or Websites, in order to point safety gaps out. Today it gives even companies, which employ hackers these are to try to penetrate into own systems in order to determine the weak points.

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Host

A main or a central computer in a network, which other computers for data exchange access. Host computers are connected by an interface with the network and consist e.g. of data bases.

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- I -
INI files

Files with system information, which is interpreted when starting the system. They are normally put on with the installation contentwise. With Windows the most important INI files are "WIN.INI" and "SYSTEM.INI".

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Intermediate file

Intermediate file the part of a memory is named, which holds data ready between individual processing steps. This is mostly used for copying and inserting, as far as it is supported by applications.

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InterNet

The world-wide largest data network, with data lines mentioned by most different structure, also heterogeneous net. For the on-line Shopping, on-line Banking, Download is used a regarding by software, on the part of etc., whereby this happens independently of the operating system.

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ISDN

Abbreviation for Integrated Services Digital Network. A digital net for communication, introduced by the Telekom. Several channels are offered to the user for telephoning or Surfen, whereby with the Surfen also the channel can be used for telephoning, as far as this supports the Provider. This doubles the data transmission rate on 128 bits.

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ISO

Abbreviation for internationally standards organization. 1946 a created international standardisation organization with seat in Paris. The members consist of 70 national standardisation organizations. So e.g. the ISO-9660 is a format for the data storage on a CD-ROM.

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- J -
Java

One of the company Sun developed programming language for the InterNet. It is a operating system-spreading language, which is meant for the InterNet use mainly. So Java applet (programs) can be implemented also on the Client in the InterNet. In America is called "java" colloquially "Kaffee".

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- K -
Kernel

Marks the hardwarenaheste interface of an operating system. This part is processor dependent. The Kernel takes over the administration of hardware resources as well as the working storage management. The Kernel must be constantly in the main memory present.

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- L -
LAN

Abbreviation for local AREA network, a local network. Local one of networks are put on, over on resources (software, data, printer etc..) to be able to access from several PCS. For this the PCS are interconnected by a line. Frequently a very efficient computer is in the network, on which the data are central stored and called up.

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- M -
Macro

An instruction sequence (comparable with batch files), which contains stored instructions. If one opens this file, then the instructions are successively implemented.

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Main memory

The main memory serves to accomodate programs, data needed at short notice, as well as the necessary parts of the operating system. If the PC is again started, the stored data are lost in the main memory.

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MBR

Abbreviation for master boat record. The boat program of the BIOS reads the necessary information from it for starting the operating system. There data concerning e.g. the number and kind of the partitions are contained.

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Modem

Short form for modulator and Demudulator. These devices are used for data communication in similar data networks. Their task consists of converting digital signals of the PC into similar signals for the data network.

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Multitasking

The ability of an operating system to be able to process several tasks at the same time. Multithreading is multitasking with programs. A program is divided into several sections and processed without interference of the operating system.

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- N -

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- O -
OEM

Abbreviation for original equipment Manufacturer (= manufacturer of original equipment). PC manufacturers make the construction units of their PCS rarely independently, but refer the individual components such as non removable disks of the appropriate manufacturers (OEMs) to special conditions, which applies also to software such as operating system.

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OLE

Abbreviation for Object Linking and Embedding (= link and embed). A procedure around objects such as text, pictures or tables, which were provided with an application to merge into another document.

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OS

Abbreviation for operating system. See "Betriebssystem".

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- P -
Parameter

They permit the user to affect programs after special requirements. Many programs are provided with this function for the universal employment. Parameters can be indicated e.g. as addition in the command line. So one can specify the dissolution e.g. over parameters with a monitor driver.

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Partition

A subrange of a physical non removable disk, which is divided into logical drive assemblies (partitions). If FAT 16 is used, the partition size cannot amount to larger than two GB. Therefore a larger non removable disk must be divided into several partitions.

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Periphery

A comprehensive term for all devices attached to the computer. They are divided in external memory, input devices, output devices and dialogue devices.

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Path

With the help of the paths files can be stored and read in an arranged hierarchy. Paths are arranged in form of a tree.

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Plug & Play

One of Intel and Microsoft developed possibility for the self configuration with PC plug-in cards. Setting of Jumpern for adjustment of addresses, interruption code etc. is thus redundant. With boats by the BIOS it is examined whether the attached hardware Plug & Play supported and appropriate resources become assigned.

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Paging file

Paging files are put on, in order to make available more main memory. This file is put on on the non removable disk and used as additional main memories. If the physical main memory is not enough, parts are copied into the paging file. Working with so a file is a cheap extension of the main memory at expense of the speed.

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PostScript

One of Adobe developed side posting language for printers. It contains vector-oriented instructions for production of the texts and diagrams. The printers must be compatible with PostScript.

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- Q -
Source code

It is as it were the skeleton of a program or a HTML side, whereby also only this can be changed. From the source code a program can be produced, but a www side must be constantly formatted again in the Browser.

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- R -
RGB

Abbreviation for red green blue, the basic colours for color monitors. From overlays of these colors can result 16 million colours. When printing however the CYMK Farbschema is used (cyanogen Yellow Magenta Black). CYMK is based on a substraktiven color blending, RGB however on that additives.

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The root listing is the only listing, which does not possess predecessors. It contains the following listings and data. It is the starting point of a logical drive assembly (partition).

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- S -

SCSI

Abbreviation for Small computer system interface (= interface for small computer systems). This interface is an advancement of SASI (Shugart Associates system interface). At the interface devices and a computer can be attached up to seven, whereby these must support also the SCSI bus system. The data transmission rates amount to 10 MT and more, whereby advancements offer such as SCSI 2, nearly SCSI, Wide SCSI and other higher rates and make additionally a connection possible of more devices.

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Shell

English for bowl or case. Operating systems consist of a system core (Kernel) and an echelon of command (Shell). The Shell surrounds the Kernel and interprets commands of the user, which are passed on to the Kernel for the execution. SQL Abbreviation for Structured Query LANGUAGE. It is a data base language, with which the user that is simplified access to data base management.

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- T -
Task

It is possible to let several programs run parallel. These programs have to solve different tasks, which are divided into subtasks. For the smallest task, which can be not further divided, task is started. Task is a closed task in a program section.

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TCP/IP

Abbreviation for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. With this minutes safe communication between two different computers is ensured. The transmission reliability is created e.g. by an error handling and data flow control.

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- U -

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- V -
VGA

Abbreviation for video Graphics array. Marks a diagram standard with a dissolution of 640x480 pixel with 16 colors from a farbpalette of 262144 colours. If you start Windows into the safe mode, VGA is used.

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- W -
WIN.INI

A system file, which reads and interprets Windows for configuration when starting. In this file attitudes are made, which describe the use of Windows. There is system-spreading values and software adjustments.

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WYSIWYG

Abbreviation for What You lake Is What You GET (expressed as "Wihsiwig"). This is the name for a technology, with which one sees on the screen, what with an expression is also spent. If you format a text e.g. under Word fat, also directly one indicates.

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- X -

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- Y -

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- Z -
Zero-modem

With zero-modem an interwiring is marked over the serial interface between two PCS for data exchange. Modern operating systems need for it no special software.

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Heddesheim, 2021.10.26 at 5:07

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